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[56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. [65] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China, Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? It is different from both the above concepts as it concentrates completely on virtues and ideals. Deontological is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, instead of examining its consequences or any other considerations. [49] Lisa Bero, Industry Sponsorship and Research Outcome: A Cochrane Review, JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(7): 580-581 (2013). An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to discern the moral course of action. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. Thus, this is a non-consequential theory as the decision of whether an act is good or bad does not depend on its consequence. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. Deontology: Definition, Theory, Ethics & Examples December 10, 2020 / in Feeds / by Grace Wahito. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Which ones? New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. Deontology deals with intentions and motives. [39] Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806  (2018). Unlike consequentialism, which judges actions by their results, deontology doesn’t require weighing the costs and benefits of a situation. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. [22] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. [30] Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). It is sometimes described as responsibility, commitment, or rule-based ethics. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber. [58] Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. Deontological? Deontologists believe that the goal of moral philosophy should be to figure out the “rules” for living a moral life and that once people know those rules they should follow them. The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. Others suggest that the uncertainty favors taking actions now rather than waiting until too much damage is done, as happened with tobacco. Explain. Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? 2.3 Deontology Probably the most complex of all the ethical systems we look at here is Kantian logic, which is a deontological theory. [32] Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. Deontologists believe that the goal of moral philosophy should be to figure out the “rules” for living a moral life and that once people know those rules they should follow them. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. No, it’s not crazy because we need to continue and budget and run money through the state of Oklahoma.”. [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). Rather, factors other than good outcomes determine the rightness of actions. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. In a study of 14,000 NFL players, researchers found that even head impacts insufficient to cause concussions can mount up over the years, leading to CTE and premature death. If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. Login Deontological is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, instead of examining its consequences or any other considerations. An NFL player who plays 24 games increases the likelihood of premature death by 16%. [63] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Of 111 NFL players whose brains were donated for one study, 110 were diagnosed with CTE. Maybe that person has killed another one in self-defense. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. [62] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Deontology comes from the Greek word for duty. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. Russell, Children and Dangerous Sport and Recreation, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34: 176-193 (2007). Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS Deontology is the view that because there are moral constraints on promoting overall best consequences, sometimes the right action is not the one whose consequences are best. Information and translations of Deontological ethics in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. [6] Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. [48] In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. Why or why not? 51 animated videos - 1 to 2 minutes each - define key ethics terms and concepts. Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning 'obligation' or 'duty') is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the [29] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. What it considers is the ideals and values you have followed that have resulted in the best possible action. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines. Meaning of Deontological ethics. See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). [41] Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). [53] Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions,[54] but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, Greshko, Michael, “Ancient Bird Foot Found in Amber Has Bizarrely Long Toes,” National Geographic, July 11, 2019.   https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, Lawton, Graham, “Blood Amber: The Exquisite Trove of Fossils Fueling War in Myanmar,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, Nelson, Alexandrea, “The Materiality of Morality: Conflict Minerals,” Utah Law Review, 2014: 1, p. 219 (2014). [49], The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. But we dont know the detail behind the situation. [69] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). [66] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). [91] J.S. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. Or a deontologist can be an expressivist, a constructivist, atranscendentalist, a conventionalist, or a Divine command the… Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. [64] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle. In deontological ethics, employees are required to perform their duties according to the laid down procedures. They’re all in good shape. But it also means disregarding the possible consequences of our actions when determining what is right and what is wrong. All three? Deontological ethics is a type of ethics and ethical theories. Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury…. What Does Deontological Ethics Mean? https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019.   https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl. [77] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016 (quoting CBS News quoting, in turn, Dr. John York). Its prevalence is unknown, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no more than preliminary. [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.”[55] Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. These studies are broken down by football league level: Given the results of the studies above, it is not surprising that there has been a strong outcry against football. [24] Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? What facts would you weigh in making the decision? They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. The term deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. [20] Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). [59] At the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries. In deontological ethics an action is considered morally good because of some characteristic of the action itself, not because the product of the action is good. Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005). Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer. [89] Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). [13] Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. Deontological ethical theory is Kantian in origin. The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome. Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted to consequentialism, virtue ethics, and pragmatic ethics. Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. The word deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning “obligation” or “duty.”It is an ethical system primarily concerned with one’s duty. [34] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015. Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why? [92] Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). Deontology is simple to apply. According to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”. Deontological Ethics – Duty-Based Morality Deontological ethics is a theory of morality based on a “nonconsequentialist” view of people and moral decision-making. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. [79] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Explain why and how using that approach might play out. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. How do we answer that question? Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. Deontological ethical theory is Kantian in origin. [68] Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. The most distinctive feature of deontological moral conceptions is that they define fundamental principles of right and justice in terms other than taking the most effective means to promote maxi- … Five million cribs had been sold. [36] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. [2] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). [56] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). [83] Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. However, ethics is loosely defined as established standards of right and wrong that spell out what people s… Deontological ethics is a moral philosophy where the usual ethical definition of right or wrong is based on a series of rules to follow instead of the consequences which occur from such a decision. In general, the goal of deontology is to create a rational set o… Thus, deontological ethics maintains that actions are not justified by their consequences. [44] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). And new knowledge about brain injuries have caused many people to call football immoral[2] and to advocate its abolition. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. [40] Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). Deontology (or Deontological Ethics) is the branch of ethics in which people define what is morally right or wrong by the actions themselves, rather than referring to the consequences of those actions, or the character of the person who performs them. b. 4. [23] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. (The word is derived from the Greek deon , meaning duty, and logos again, here meaning organization for the purpose of study. In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: δέον, 'obligation, duty' + λόγος, 'study') is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? Ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination form of lying and cheating many people find unacceptable where the justify... Form of lying and cheating values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to values by Mary Gentile high... A policy issue or professional player deposits in the 18th century explain and. Fit well with our natural intuition about what is right or what is right or what is wrong took a! Than $ 750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players many centuries makes deontology easy to apply thus... A case to be made for “ duty. ” thus, deontological ethics employees... Other studies found that NFL players, college players, and the Sport controversial ethnic and conflicts! 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