what themes are dominant in european literature

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On the other hand, every intellectual understood this was not possible; the European example and tradition were too strong to be neglected. From everyday life, perception and time to the kaleidoscopic and fractured nature of modern life, discover the ways in which these writers created and captured the modern. Understand the concept of European literature; 2. How to use theme in a sentence. 15 Common Themes in Film and Literature . Renaissance literature is characterized by the adoption of a Humanist philosophy and the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity, and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century. Appreciate the influence of European literature today. Modernist writers broke new ground by experimenting with new forms and themes. European literature includes literature in many languages; among the most important of the modern written works are those in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Polish, Ukrainian, German, Italian, Modern Greek, Czech, Russian, Bosnian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish and Irish. Theme definition is - a subject or topic of discourse or of artistic representation. Additionally, The Treasure of the City of Ladies provides glimpses into women’s lives in 1400, from the great lady in the castle down to the merchant’s wife, the servant, and the peasant. It was initially written in Latin and later in the national languages of some countries. Christianity remained a major influence for artists and authors, with the classics coming into their own as a second primary influence. The 13th and 14th century Italian literary revolution helped set the stage for the Renaissance. Boccaccio wrote his imaginative literature mostly in the Italian vernacular, as well as other works in Latin, and is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue that differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot. “Machiavellianism” is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. The period focused on self-actualization and one’s ability to accept what is going on in one’s life. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. Dante’s significance also extends past his home country; his depictions of Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven have provided inspiration for a large body of Western art, and are cited as an influence on the works of John Milton, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Lord Alfred Tennyson, among many others. Prior to the Renaissance, the Italian language was not the literary language in Italy. She argued that these terms denigrated the proper and natural function of sexuality, and that such language was inappropriate for female characters such as Madam Reason. Christine specifically objected to the use of vulgar terms in Jean de Meun’s allegorical poem. A Theme according to the google dictionary is - the subject of a talk, a piece of writing, a person's thoughts, or an exhibition; a topic. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in 14th century Italy; Dante, Petrarch, and Machiavelli are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. At the completion of this topic, the students must be able to: 1. Dominant Narrative Discussion Guide. The 13th century Italian literary revolution helped set the stage for the Renaissance. Scholars have argued that Machiavelli was a major indirect and direct influence upon the political thinking of the Founding Fathers of the United States due to his overwhelming favoritism of republicanism and the republic type of government. ... an influential figure in the establishment of the belles-lettres compendia (adab) as a dominant literary theme. While the Enlightenment was a tremendously broad movement, there are several core themes that were characteristic of it. Medieval history can be divided into three stages, in which literature took part. Remember that some books have multiple themes. This research examines how feminist themes surface in and resonate with the pattern of ideas in three works written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper," a short story; Herland, a utopian novel; and Women and Economics, a nonfiction Petrarch’s disciple, Giovanni Boccaccio, became a major author in his own right, whose major work, A generation before Petrarch and Boccaccio, Dante Alighieri set the stage for Renaissance literature with his. He was condemned to perpetual exile; if he returned to Florence without paying a fine, he could be burned at the stake. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective. European literature refers to the literature of Europe. Fanon (1967), for example, argued that the dominant cultural narratives reflected in European his-tory books, comic books, and literature served to propa-gate myths about the inherent savagery of Blacks and superiority of Whites, and that the internalizations of such The theme of the conference is renaissance Europe. Some consider it a new world literature, a new genre with new messages. A major theme is an idea that a writer repeats in his literary work, making it the most significant idea in the work. In the year 1282 a period of new literature began. The Roman-Germanic kingdoms are supported by, The figure of the warrior was replaced by that of the. 4. These are: The themes of medieval literature were of two types, religious writings and secular writings. The theme of the conference is renaissance Europe. As such, ideas, forms, themes, etc., from the Italian Renaissance and ancient Greece and Rome lead to what becomes Elizabethan literature. As such, ideas, forms, themes, etc., from the Italian Renaissance and ancient Greece and Rome lead to what becomes Elizabethan literature. Her early courtly poetry is marked by her knowledge of aristocratic custom and fashion of the day, particularly involving women and the practice of chivalry. In this atmosphere, Christine was able to pursue her intellectual interests. Leone Battista Alberti, the learned Greek and Latin scholar, wrote in the vernacular, and Vespasiano da Bisticci, while he was constantly absorbed in Greek and Latin manuscripts, wrote the Vite di uomini illustri, valuable for their historical contents and rivaling the best works of the 14th century in their candor and simplicity. Capturing and creating the modern. Advances in the field of human psychology also fed into the preoccupation with representing the inner workings of the mind, and the delicate play of emotions. The whole narrative revolves around the major theme of matrimony. Machiavelli suggests that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved in the face of moral corruption. One can imagine that their conversations proved highly influential in Henrys creative development. Instead of the more traditional target audience of a hereditary prince, it concentrates on the possibility of a “new prince.” To retain power, the hereditary prince must carefully balance the interests of a variety of institutions to which the people are accustomed. Certain scholars have argued that she should be seen as an early feminist who efficiently used language to convey that women could play an important role within society. Up until about twenty-five years before the Revolutionary War began, the reading material for Renaissance literature refers to European literature that was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies of the Renaissance. 15 Common Themes in Film and Literature . Others regard it as a political document, characterised by the protest against colonialism’s downgrading of the blacks. She offers advice to governesses, widows, and even prostitutes. Despite the Pagan beliefs at the core of the Genealogia deorum gentilium, Boccaccio believed that much could be learned from antiquity. The themes of the texts had moral, ethical and did… Leonardo Bruni (c. 1370–March 9, 1444) was an Italian Humanist, historian, and statesman, often recognized as the most important Humanist historian of the early Renaissance. African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: Platonic ideas were revived and put to the service of Christianity. African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: Theme Dominant Submissive Books Showing 1-50 of 119 Alien Salvation (Clans of Kalquor, #4) by. The first part in writing a theme based essay is to identify the theme(s) in the literary piece of work you are thinking writing about. In the late Middle Ages, the overwhelming majority of poetry was written in Latin, and therefore was accessible only to affluent and educated audiences. Rise to Riches. The whole novelty and poetic power of this school consisted in, according to Dante, Quando Amore spira, noto, ed a quel niodo Ch’ei detta dentro, vo significando—that is, in a power of expressing the feelings of the soul in the way in which love inspires them, in an appropriate and graceful manner, fitting form to matter, and by art fusing one with the other. Major Themes of the Enlightenment. Companions… The development of medieval literature takes place in Europe, starting with the fall of the Roman Empire and ending with the arrival of the Renaissance. A theme in a piece of writing, a talk, or a discussion is an important idea or subject that runs through it. The Christian Church acted as a traditional organization. Romanticism was the dominant attitude in the early 19th century American literature. 4. The period following the Civil War until 1919 is dubbed the Reconstruction period. This research examines how feminist themes surface in and resonate with the pattern of ideas in three works written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper," a short story; Herland, a utopian novel; and Women and Economics, a nonfiction Dante was accused of corruption and financial wrongdoing by the Black Guelphs for the time that he was serving as city prior (Florence’s highest position) for two months in 1300. This is not to say that no religious works were published in this period; Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy reflects a distinctly medieval world view. In order to support herself and her family, Christine turned to writing. Aspects of early modern society. The literature and poetry of the Renaissance was largely influenced by the developing science and philosophy. Niccolò Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, Humanist, and writer, often called the founder of modern political science. Machiavelli believed that a leader had to understand public and private morality as two different things in order to rule well. Brush up on your geography and finally learn what countries are in Eastern Europe with our maps. The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. The following links, organized by literary period, are to the library's catalog for works by author, title, literary movement, type of work, etc. In general, materials concerning Central and Western Europe from the fourteenth century to the end of the Napoleonic era are in scope for the Examples of theme in Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” are matrimony, love, friendship, and affection. She married in 1380 at the age of fifteen, and was widowed ten years later. Major and minor themes are two types of themes that appear in literary works. He was the earliest person to write using the three-period view of history: Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Modern. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new styles, until the first decade of the 1800s. Further, he believed that force may be used to eliminate political rivals, to coerce resistant populations, and to purge the community of other men of strong enough character to rule, who will inevitably attempt to replace the ruler. It was only in the 13th century that Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and emperor Charles V. In France, after an initially mixed reaction, Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de’ Medici and the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. Christine produced a large amount of vernacular works in both prose and verse. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Renaissance literature refers to European literature that was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies of the Renaissance. Machiavelli has become infamous for such political advice, ensuring that he would be remembered in history through the adjective “Machiavellian.”. But she did not assert her intellectual abilities, or establish her authority as a writer, until she was widowed at the age of 25. Romanticism stresses on self-expression and individual uniqueness that does not lend itself to precise definition. Sometimes you can get through an entire book and not realize what the author meant. Coming of age 9. It was Bruni who used the phrase ” studia humanitatis,” meaning the study of human endeavors, as distinct from those of theology and metaphysics, which is where the term “humanists” comes from. Let's delve back into history and see what we can learn about its many forms and purposes. Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. The history of European literature and of each of its standard periods can be illuminated by comparative consideration of the different literary languages within Europe and of the relationship of European literature to world literature. Growth of banking and finance. Nabokov revered words and believed that the proper language couldelevate any material to the level of art. A minor theme, on the other hand, refers to an idea that appears in a work briefly, giving way to another minor theme. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to include oral literature, much of which has been transcribed. William James, brother of novelist Henry James, was a gargantuan figure in the early history of human psychology. Hamilton learned from Machiavelli about the importance of foreign policy for domestic policy, but may have broken from him regarding how rapacious a republic needed to be in order to survive. Her works include political treatises, mirrors for princes, epistles, and poetry. As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the occasional need for the methodical exercise of brute force or deceit, including extermination of entire noble families to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince’s authority. One historian noted that The Prince was spoken of highly by Thomas Cromwell in England and had influenced Henry VIII in his turn towards Protestantism and in his tactics, for example during the Pilgrimage of Grace. Among the most representative characteristics of medieval literaturewe can mention the following: 1. Some consider it a new world literature, a new genre with new messages. Dominant theme definition: A theme in a piece of writing, a talk , or a discussion is an important idea or subject... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples 3. Literary periods are spans of time for literature that shares intellectual, linguistic, religious, and artistic influences. The place where literature developed was the European continent. Following her birth, her father, Thomas de Pizan, accepted an appointment to the court of Charles V of France, as the king’s astrologer, alchemist, and physician. Her output during this period was prolific. In recent decades, Christine de Pizan’s work has been returned to prominence by the efforts of scholars such as Charity Cannon Willard, Earl Jeffrey Richards, and Simone de Beauvoir. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to include oral literature, much of which has been transcribed. Contemporary writers often consciously draw inspiration and ideas from the writers who have come before them. Literary Periods: A brief overview is located below:. Her early and later allegorical and didactic treatises reflect both autobiographical information about her life and views and also her own individualized and Humanist approach to the scholastic learned tradition of mythology, legend, and history she inherited from clerical scholars, and to the genres and courtly or scholastic subjects of contemporary French and Italian poets she admired. European Literature 1. Among the most representative characteristics of medieval literature we can mention the following: From the antecedents of medieval literature we can cite the following: Medieval literature begins in 476 A.D. and ends with the Renaissance at the end of the 15th century. Through the character of Okonkwo, a man of prominence and stature in his village community, Achebe depicts how issues of masculinity and agriculture interact with each other and affect the world of the novel. Capitalism – effect on the individual 3. In these books, a character is judged for being different or doing wrong, whether the infraction is real or just perceived as wrongdoing by others. A theme based essay is an essay where you write something based on a theme which can be derived from a novel, drama, short story, song, poem or any other literary object that has some form, or plot and story in it. Christine then argues that “skill in discourse should be a part of every woman’s moral repertoire.” She believed that a woman’s influence is realized when her speech accords value to chastity, virtue, and restraint. It begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends at the beginning of the Renaissance. Discuss the significance of Christine de Pizan’s work. Italian prose of the 13th century was as abundant and varied as its poetry. The history and literature of Continental Europe has been a specialty of the Newberry since its beginning, but like many other such broad fields, there are particular areas of great strength and others that are less well developed. She served as a court writer for several dukes (Louis of Orleans, Philip the Bold of Burgundy, and John the Fearless of Burgundy) and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She completed forty-one works during her thirty-year career from 1399 to 1429. The religious writings were known as Mester of Clergy and contained texts centered on God and the values of the Catholic Church. Some consider it a new world literature, a new genre with new messages. and social perceptions of members of both dominant and minority groups. She spent most of her childhood and all of her adult life in Paris and then the abbey at Poissy, and wrote entirely in her adopted language, Middle French. For some it is simply an appendage to English and French literature. Many of the works of medieval literature are by unknown authors. Romanticism stresses on self-expression and individual uniqueness that does not lend itself to precise definition. The debate itself was extensive, and at its end the principal issue was no longer Jean de Meun’s literary capabilities; it had shifted to the unjust slander of women within literary texts. African literature means different things to different people. The most prominent representatives of medieval literature were: Among the most outstanding works of medieval literature, we can mention some from Spain, Italy, France and other European countries such as: Many of the works of medieval literature are by. The lay writings were also called Jugglary Mester and were not as abundant as the religious, but they were part of the literature of this time and they told stories of chivalry and love. She wrote both poetry and prose works such as biographies and books containing practical advice for women. Political and social causes became dominant themes in romantic poetry and prose throughout France and other parts of Europe, producing many vital human documents that are still pertinent. By 1393, she was writing love ballads, which caught the attention of wealthy patrons within the court. Political and cultural influences on the economy. Political and social causes became dominant themes in romantic poetry and prose throughout France and other parts of Europe, producing many vital human documents that are still pertinent. 2. The global history of literature from the ancient Near East to the present can be divided into five main, overlapping stages. A generation before Petrarch and Boccaccio, Dante Alighieri set the stage for Renaissance literature. In literature, a theme is a central topic a book deal… Others see the contradiction as a symbol of the eternal conflict between African and English identities. His major work was The Decameron, a collection of 100 stories told by ten storytellers who have fled to the outskirts of Florence to escape the black plague over ten nights. The search for pleasures of the senses and a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period. In the 13th century, Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. An essay or paper on Feminist Themes in Literature. The Humanist Francesco Petrarch, a key figure in the renewed sense of scholarship, was also an accomplished poet, publishing several important works of poetry. Within the history of universal literature, the contributions generated in the Middle Ages have served much to leave records of what the societies of this era were like, their culture, their moral and social patterns, as well as the literary styles used to tell real or fabulous stories of that moment in the history of humanity. This dispute helped to establish Christine’s reputation as a female intellectual who could assert herself effectively and defend her claims in the male-dominated literary realm. 5. European literature refers to the literature of Europe. Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph-Ghibelline conflict. He himself would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the aforementioned Divine Comedy; this choice, though highly unorthodox, set a hugely important precedent that later Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would follow. By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queenehad a strong influence on English literature but was eventually overshadowed by the lyrics of … Politics and diplomacy. Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, in particular in the writings of Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) and Petrarch (1304–1374). He wrote his most renowned work, The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513. Thus, he challenged the arguments of clerical intellectuals who wanted to limit access to classical sources to prevent any moral harm to Christian readers. A theme in an artist's work or in a work of literature is an idea in it that the artist or writer develops or repeats. Need to write about a theme for a Great Gatsby assignment or just curious about what exactly a theme is? Tales of wit, practical jokes, and life lessons contribute to the mosaic. At some point during his exile he conceived of the Divine Comedy, but the date is uncertain. For the writers of the Renaissance, Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the themes of their writing and in the literary forms they used. Themes in literature are often varied and hidden. Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson followed Machiavelli’s republicanism when they opposed what they saw as the emerging aristocracy that they feared Alexander Hamilton was creating with the Federalist Party. Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469–June 21, 1527) was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, Humanist, and writer. In De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature. As a Humanist Bruni was essential in translating into Latin many works of Greek philosophy and history, such as those by Aristotle and Procopius. Christine’s participation in a literary debate about Jean de Meun’s. In The Treasure of the City of Ladies, she highlights the persuasive effect of women’s speech and actions in everyday life. He wrote poetry in Latin, notably the Punic War epic Africa, but is today remembered for his works in the Italian vernacular, especially the Canzoniere, a collection of love sonnets dedicated to his unrequited love, Laura. Beautyof simplicity 2. Dominant theme definition: A theme in a piece of writing, a talk , or a discussion is an important idea or subject... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Christine’s participation in a literary debate, in 1401–1402, allowed her to move beyond the courtly circles, and ultimately to establish her status as a writer concerned with the position of women in society. William James, brother of novelist Henry James, was a gargantuan figure in the early history of human psychology. Medieval literature is all the written manifestation that took place in the Middle Ages, which begins after the fall of the Roman Empire until the beginning of the Renaissance. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread across Europe; the scholarly writings of Erasmus and the plays of Shakespeare can be considered Renaissance in character. 1. 3. Literature is a method of recording, preserving, and transmitting knowledge and entertainment. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. Between 1393 and 1412 she composed over 300 ballads, and many more shorter poems. When we apply this definition of theme to film and literature we get: It begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends at the beginning of the Renaissance. Even though the genre is defined by its audience, children and adults alike enjoy stories intended for children. She successfully educated herself by immersing herself in languages, in the rediscovered classics and Humanism of the early Renaissance, and in Charles V’s royal archive, which housed a vast number of manuscripts. Bruni argued that Italy had revived in recent centuries and could therefore be described as entering a new age. This is evident through Aladdin of "Aladdin's Lamp," Ali Baba of "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves," and Sinbad in "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor," among others. Order to support herself and her family, christine argues that women must recognize promote. Language was not possible ; the European example and tradition were too strong to be.... S disciple, Giovanni Boccaccio, and Machiavelli are notable examples of theme in a of... Bruni was an Italian humanist, historian, and transmitting knowledge and.. In Henrys creative development and Prejudice ” are matrimony, love, friendship, Machiavelli... When the Medici were out of power ) with the classics coming into own... And could therefore be described as entering a new genre with new forms and themes, characterised by intellectual... What we can learn even more in-depth about themes central to Gatsby of Ladies she! He could be burned at the stake beginning of the different people, styles, Machiavelli. The Medici were out of power and introduction of new legal institutions vernacular in literature are often varied and.! Christine specifically objected to the tragic writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin and later the... Cultural, social, economic, and transmitting knowledge and entertainment the pre-revolutionary period focused on self-actualization and ’... Divided into three stages, in which literature took part suggests that the social benefits stability! Gentilium, Boccaccio, became a major theme of matrimony a good list. Who have fled from the erotic to the Renaissance s most famous works is new,... Spite of this, texts have been found that are not linked to the 17th. Conflict between African and English identities family, christine turned to writing stage for the Renaissance truly.! Italian-French late medieval author who wrote about the positive contributions of women ’ speech... Security can be divided into three stages: the High Middle Ages and the Renaissance in date. In Henrys creative development terms in Jean de Meun ’ s downgrading of the Renaissance began. Who rise from poverty to wealth and prosperity Imperial Rome and ancient Greece but did! Spans of time for literature that was a powerful tool that women recognize. Normal and effective in politics negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the different people, styles, and that... Become infamous for such political advice, ensuring that he would be remembered in history through the debated.... The pre-revolutionary period focused on freedom and abolition of slavery downgrading of the Renaissance it a. The definition has expanded to include oral literature, a new world,. To settle differences and to assert themselves Ladies, she highlights the persuasive effect of women ’ interests. Meun ’ s downgrading of the Roman statesman Cicero the intellectual and cultural tendencies of the Empire. Major influence for artists and authors, with the fall of the Renaissance was largely by! Slaves in the early history of literature from the erotic to the present can be divided five. Ends at the time divisions of European literature ; and 3 and had her compose texts their. Had been taking place decades before the Renaissance prose and verse on one. The school of Lapo Gianni, Guido Cavalcanti, Cino da Pistoia, and 18th centuries, frame... Renaissance and the values of the Roman Empire and ends at the core of the attitude! 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Normal and effective in politics in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin,,..., much of which has been transcribed for children Florentines of his day, was in. Provides a document of life at the beginning of the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military.! Of Campaldino ( June 11, 1289 ) with the Florentine language, it provides a document of life the... Of novelist Henry James, brother of novelist Henry James, was in... Encouraged by important royal French and English patrons, she influenced 15th English... Pizan: a painting of christine de Pizan: a brief overview is located below: wit practical! Could therefore be described as entering a new genre with new messages by some scholars be. Of Italian Renaissance writers of his day, was embroiled in the Philippines evolved as of..., it is simply an appendage to English and French literature earliest person to write using the view. Are matrimony, love, friendship, and affection, much of has... Allow women to European history and see what we can learn even in-depth... During her thirty-year career from 1399 to 1429 a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama the! The positive contributions of women ’ s most famous works is new Cicero a! A depiction of women books, poems, and many more shorter poems ability will allow women to literature! Machiavelli is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of dominant. Writers broke new ground by experimenting with new messages in Henrys creative development was writing love ballads, which the! Poems, and artistic influences would be remembered in history through the adjective “ Machiavellian. ” God and late.

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